Dr.med. Othmar Mäser, Psychiater Psychotherapie

Publications and Presentations

August 28th, 2009

Publications and Presentations on the subject medical and psychiatric diagnostics and knowledge …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Poster 6 in PDF format Diagnosis in Psychiatry – the Role of Biological Markers – an investigation in the light of Immanuel Kant`s philosophy Poster 6 in PDF Format   handout record DGPPN – Kongress 2009,  24-27 November 2010, Berlin, Germany …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Poster [...]

object in an absolute sense

August 19th, 2009

In German, Immanuel Kant called an object in an absolute sense (a real physical object) “Gegenstand schlechthin“; it is an object that really exists (see Kant quotation 7). The following terms represent such real objects: a piece of metal a chair a table a word written in letters a combination  of numbers …. etc. a piece [...]

ideal object (object in mind)

August 19th, 2009

An ideal object is an object that exists in a person`s mind but does not exist physically, not even in a hypothetical sense.  (-> Kant quotation 7) In German, Immanuel Kant called an ideal object “Gegenstand in der Idee“. An ideal object is a schema, which is useful for the purpose of representing other objects in relation to [...]

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Kant´s Preface to the first edition (1781) (J. M. D. Meiklejohn translation) “Human reason, in one sphere of its cognition, is called upon to consider questions, which it cannot decline, as they are presented by its own nature, but which it cannot answer, as they transcend every faculty of the mind. It falls into this [...]

(J. M. D. Meiklejohn translation) ” If however, we neglect this restriction of the idea to a purely regulative influence, reason is betrayed into numerous errors. For it has then left the ground of experience, in which alone are to be found the criteria of truth, and has ventured into the region of incomprehensible and [...]

“The hypothetical exercise of reason by the aid of ideas employed as problematical conceptions is properly not constitutive. That is to say, if we consider the subject strictly, the truth of the rule, which has been employed as an hypothesis, does not follow from the use that is made of it by the reason. For [...]

the new edition has moved here

the new edition of this article has moved here.

Norman Kemp Smith translation: “But reason cannot think this systematic unity otherwise than by giving to the idea of this unity an object; and since experience can never give an example of complete systematic unity, the object which we have to assign to the idea is not such as experience can ever supply. This object, as thus [...]

Norman Kemp Smith translation: “There is a great difference between something being given to my reason as an object absolutely, or merely as an object in the idea. In the former case our concepts are employed to determine the object; in the latter case there is in fact only a schema for which no object [...]

(Norman Kemp Smith translation) “Nothing but advantage can result from the psychological idea thus conceived, if only we take heed that it is not viewed as more than a mere idea, and that is therefore taken as valid only relatively to the systematic employment of reason in determining the appearances of our soul. For no [...]

(Norman Kemp Smith translation:) “Thus all human knowledge begins with intuitions, proceeds from thence to concepts, and ends with ideas. Although in respect of all three elements it possesses a priori sources of knoweldge, which on first consideration seem to scorn the limits of all experience, a thoroughgoing critique convinces us that reason in its [...]

(Norman Kemp Smith translation:) “Thus pure reason, which at first seemed to promise nothing less than the extension of knowledge beyond all limits of exerience, contains, if properly understood, nothing but regulative principles, which, while indeed prescribing greater unity than the empirical employment of understanding can achieve, yet still, by the very fact that they [...]

(Norman Kemp Smith translation:) “Thus all human knowledge begins with intuitions, proceeds from thence to concepts, and ends with ideas.” (1) ……………………………………………………………………………. ( J. M. D. Meiklejohn translation:) “Thus all human cognition begins with intuitions, proceeds from thence to conceptions, and ends with ideas.” (2) …………………………………………………………………………. (J. M. D. Meiklejohn`s translation modified by O. Mäser and A. [...]

Norman Kemp Smith translation: “The holding of a thing to be true is an occurence in our understanding which, though it may rest on objective grounds, also requires subjective causes in the mind of the individual who makes the judgement. If the judgement is valid for everyone, provided only he is in possession of reason, [...]

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