Dr.med. Othmar Mäser, Psychiater Psychotherapie

Kategorie ‘medical diagnostics / psychiatric diagnostics’

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

(Deutsch) Heilkunde

December 26th, 2013

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

(Deutsch) Schlaganfall

October 28th, 2013

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Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

(Deutsch) bildgebende Einheit

January 18th, 2012

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

“(a) Opposing tendencies in the psyche and the dialectic of its movement Psychic life and its contents are polarised in opposites. It is through the opposites, however, that everything is once more re-connected. Image calls forth counter-image, tendencies call forth counter-tendencies and feelings other feelings in contrast. At some point sadness turns spontaneously, or with [...]

“Dialectic is the form in which a basic aspect of meaningful connections becomes accessible to us, namely, that these connections are not a simple sequence of events but show a constant reciprocity, a repercussion on motivation, a progression of expanding or diminishing cycles of movement. Affect is expressed in gesture and bearing. Both these have [...]

“AUTHOR´S PREFACES To the first edition (1913) This book sets out to survey the entire field of general psychopathology and the facts and viewpoints of this science. It also sets out to be a guide to the literature for all those who are interested. Instead of presenting dogmatic statements of results, it prefers to introduce [...]

“ § 3. Basic Patterns of Meaning (a) Opposing tendencies in the psyche and the dialectic of its movement Psychic life and its contents are polarised in opposites. It is through the opposites, however, that everything is once more re-connected. Image calls forth counter-image, tendencies call forth counter-tendencies and feelings other feelings in contrast. At [...]

all Kant quotations

December 10th, 2010

Kant quotations in English – the other Kant quotations are not yet available in English but in German only . …………………………. Kant quotation 1 : human cognition Kant quotation 2 : highest faculty of cognition Kant quotation 3 : boudaries of knowledge Kant quotation 3a : right and wrong use of an idea Kant quotation [...]

Norman Kemp Smith translation: “If, then, it can be shown that the three transcendental ideas (the psychological, the cosmological, and the theological), a although they do not directly relate to, or determine any object corresponding to them, none the less, as rules of the empirical employment of reason, lead us to systematic unity, under the presumption [...]

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

A sign charaterises an object. A sign in medicine relats to a corporal object (the body) or to an object which is not of corporal nature. (compare to Kant quotation 7) A medical sign relates to the body (corpus). Signs characterise medical diseases an disorders. In medicine there are signs of corporal objects and signs [...]

A diagnosis is objective if it refers to a corporal objects which it is possible to prove on a physical basis. (->  Kant quotation 9) A diagnosis which refers to mental objects is not objective knowledge since a mental object cannot be proven on a physical basis. (Compare to Kant quotation 7) Therefore a syndromal diagnosis as e.g. [...]

“The understanding may be a faculty for the production of unity of phenomena by virtue of rules; the reason is a faculty for the production of unity of rules (of the understanding) under principles. Reason, therefore, never applies directly to experience, or to any sensuous object; its object is, on the contrary, the understanding, to [...]

Questions and Answers

May 3rd, 2010

Below you find links to several Questions and Answers on the subject of knowledge in medicine, psychiatry and psychotherapy discussed and answerd referring to Immanuel Kant`s philosophy: ………………………………………………………………. Question 1: Is it possible to prove a psychiatric diagnosis (diagnosis of a mental disorder) on an objective level? Question 2: How do we recognize a mental disorder [...]

Kant quotation 14: Concept

April 22nd, 2010

“In all subsumptions of an object under a conception, the representation of the object must be homogeneous with the conception; in other words, the conception must contain that which is represented in the object to be subsumed under it. For this is the meaning of the expression, An object is contained under the conception. …. [...]

Kant quotation 13 : Schema

April 22nd, 2010

“The Schema is, in itself, always a mere product of the imagination. …. …. In truth, it is not images of objects, but schemata, which lay at the foundation of our pure sensuous conception. No image could ever be adequate to our conception of a triangle in general. For the generalness of the conception it [...]

Norman Kemp Smith translation: “It stands quite otherwise with those principles which seek to bring the existence of appearances under rules a apriori. For since existence cannot be constructed, the principles can apply only to the relations  of existence, and can yield only regulative principles. … In philosophy analogies signify something very different from what [...]

Publications and Presentations

August 28th, 2009

Publications and Presentations on the subject medical and psychiatric diagnostics and knowledge …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Poster 6 in PDF format Diagnosis in Psychiatry – the Role of Biological Markers – an investigation in the light of Immanuel Kant`s philosophy Poster 6 in PDF Format   handout record DGPPN – Kongress 2009,  24-27 November 2010, Berlin, Germany …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Poster [...]

object in an absolute sense

August 19th, 2009

In German, Immanuel Kant called an object in an absolute sense (a real physical object) “Gegenstand schlechthin“; it is an object that really exists (see Kant quotation 7). The following terms represent such real objects: a piece of metal a chair a table a word written in letters a combination  of numbers …. etc. a piece [...]

ideal object (object in mind)

August 19th, 2009

An ideal object is an object that exists in a person`s mind but does not exist physically, not even in a hypothetical sense.  (-> Kant quotation 7) In German, Immanuel Kant called an ideal object “Gegenstand in der Idee“. An ideal object is a schema, which is useful for the purpose of representing other objects in relation to [...]

(J. M. D. Meiklejohn translation) ” If however, we neglect this restriction of the idea to a purely regulative influence, reason is betrayed into numerous errors. For it has then left the ground of experience, in which alone are to be found the criteria of truth, and has ventured into the region of incomprehensible and [...]

“The hypothetical exercise of reason by the aid of ideas employed as problematical conceptions is properly not constitutive. That is to say, if we consider the subject strictly, the truth of the rule, which has been employed as an hypothesis, does not follow from the use that is made of it by the reason. For [...]

Norman Kemp Smith translation: “But reason cannot think this systematic unity otherwise than by giving to the idea of this unity an object; and since experience can never give an example of complete systematic unity, the object which we have to assign to the idea is not such as experience can ever supply. This object, as thus [...]

(Norman Kemp Smith translation) “Nothing but advantage can result from the psychological idea thus conceived, if only we take heed that it is not viewed as more than a mere idea, and that is therefore taken as valid only relatively to the systematic employment of reason in determining the appearances of our soul. For no [...]

(Norman Kemp Smith translation:) “Thus pure reason, which at first seemed to promise nothing less than the extension of knowledge beyond all limits of exerience, contains, if properly understood, nothing but regulative principles, which, while indeed prescribing greater unity than the empirical employment of understanding can achieve, yet still, by the very fact that they [...]

(Norman Kemp Smith translation:) “Thus all human knowledge begins with intuitions, proceeds from thence to concepts, and ends with ideas.” (1) ……………………………………………………………………………. ( J. M. D. Meiklejohn translation:) “Thus all human cognition begins with intuitions, proceeds from thence to conceptions, and ends with ideas.” (2) …………………………………………………………………………. (J. M. D. Meiklejohn`s translation modified by O. Mäser and A. [...]

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